GLOSSARY


A
B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Adaptive
Showing or having a capacity for or tendency toward adaptation; adaptive training programs adapt to the skill level or to the preferences of the learner.

Animation
The act of making or designing in such a way in order to create apparently spontaneous lifelike movement; the rapid sequential presentation of slightly differing graphics to create the illusion of motion.

Applet
A computer application especially for performing a simple specific task; a small program, that runs on the Internet or an Intranet, written in the programming language known as Java.

Assessment Item
The determination of the importance, size or value of a problem or a piece of information; a question or exercise on a test, quiz, or other evaluation.

Asynchronous Training/Learning
Knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or by study with no timing requirement for transmission; a learning program that does not require the student and instructor to participate at the same time.

Authoring
The way of delivering information to be processed by a learner's ears; the developers assemble media components using a tool called an authoring system.

Authoring System or Authoring Tool
Refers to a computer based system that allows a general group to create content for intelligent tutoring systems; a program that helps you write hypertext or multimedia applications; an authoring system does not require programming knowledge or skill to operate.

B

Behavior
The way in which something functions or operates; anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation.

Browser
A computer program used for accessing sites or information on a network. Most commonly used as short for "Web Browser".

C

CBT
Computer Based Training; training or instruction where a computer program provides motivation and feedback in place on a live instructor.

Chat or Chat Room
To take part in an online discussion; a real-time online interactive discussion group.

Classroom Training
The place, generally a room, where a course of instruction or study takes place.

CMI
Computer Managed Instruction - this is a component of e-learning whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, and assessment of learner performance.

Collaborative Learning
Sharing information, working jointly with others or together especially in an intellectual endeavor in order to learn or acquire knowledge by study.

Competencies / Competency Model
List of knowledge, skills or attitudes that enables a person to respond in a characteristic manner; the state or quality of being adequately or well-qualified.

Computer Based Education
A computer program used to acquire knowledge; approach to teaching that emphasizes the use of computers.

Computer Based Learning
A type of education where the medium of instruction is computer technology-electronic learning.

Computer Based Training
An interactive instructional approach in which the computer provides a series of stimuli to the student ranging from questions to be answered to choices or decisions to be made; the computer replaces the instructor.

Computer Managed Instruction
Describes a data model to support the interchange of learning-related content objects and a runtime service.

Cookie
Known as HTTP cookies, these are parcels of text sent by the server to a Web client, usually a browser; then they are sent back unchanged by the client each time that server ia accessed.

Course
Education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings.

Courseware
A software designed to be used in classroom with a computer; a Web server-based software package for education that enables teachers to post course materials, calendars, quizzes, etc.

Curriculum
An organized program of study arranged to provide definite cultural or professional preparation; a series of related courses to be taken in pursuit of a degree or other objective.

D

Delivery Method
The way in which a course or a training is accessible to the student; can be television at a remote site, cable TV, videotape, via the Internet, CD ROM, computer disk or by standard mail. Many distance education courses have a F2F (face-to-face) component as well.

Domains of Learning
These determine which activities, assessments, and representational modes (face-to-face, video, online, multimedia) are optimal based on the learning outcome desired.

E

E-Learning
A field using technology that delivers learning and training programs; an approach to facilitate and enhance learning through the use of devices based on both computer and communications technology, including personal computers, CD-ROMs, digital television, and more.

E-mail
Electronic mail, which enables people with different computers and operating systems to communicate with each other via the Internet.

End-to-end Solution
A marketing term used by large e-learning suppliers; meant to imply that their products and services will handle all aspects of e-learning.

Entry Behavior
The prior knowledge, skill or attitude that is a pre-requisite to a given course, or that is assumed to be present by course designers.

F

FAQ
Frequently Asked Questions

Feedback
It represents the flow of information back into the control system so that the actual performance can be compared with planned performance.

Formative Evaluation
An ongoing review that describes and analyses how an activity is carried out; the outcomes are interpreted.

Frequently Asked Questions
A common type of document on the Internet that contains a list of questions and answers about a specific subject assembled in a conveniently organized list for easy reading.

G

Graphic
Any file that stores an electronic version of a picture or image; The medium of delivering static images to be interpreted by the learner visually.

GIF
Graphics Interchange Format

Graphical User Interface
GUI-a type of user interface which allows people to interact with electronic devices like computers, hand-held devices (MP3 Players, Portable Media Players, Gaming devices), household appliances and office equipment

GUI
Graphical User Interface

H

HTML
HyperText Markup Language

Hypertext
Documents or other information classically underlined and in coloured font with embedded links that enable a reader to access tangential information at specific points in the text.

Hypertext Markup Language
A computer programming language that helps control the format of a documents content and design on the World Wide Web.

I

Icon
A graphic symbol (usually a simple picture) that denotes a program or a command or a data file or a concept in a graphical user.

Instructor Led Training (ILT)
Traditional training that is mediated by a live trainer or instructor who is there in person.

Interactivity
A characteristic of multimedia software that expects users to respond directly to the choices available on the screen and thus customize what is presented to their needs or wishes.

Internet
The modern network of tens of thousands of interlinked computers; A global network connecting other networks and computers around the world.

Internet-based Training
A web-based learning program; Training which is done entirely on an Internet connection.

Internet Explorer (IE)
It was developed by Microsoft and it is one of the most widely used web browsers; a program that allows you to view different websites.

ISD
It ensures that learners acquire the skill essential for successful completion of specified performance goals. A formal process for designing training, be it computer-based or traditional instructor-led training.

J

Java
A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that is intended to be operational on any hardware/software system.

Java Applet
A short program written in Java that is attached to a World Wide Web page and executed by the browser machine.

JPEG
Pronounced JAY-peg - Joint Photographic Expert Group; a file format for image data enabling "lossy compression", i.e. which may lose some detail when decompressed.

K

L

LCMS
Learning Content Management System

Learning Content Management System (LCMS)
Software for delivering, tracking and managing training; web-based to facilitate access to learning content and administration.

LMS
Learning Management System

Learning Management System
A program that manages the administartion of training and also a broad term used for a wide range of systems that organize and provide access to online learning services for students, teachers, and administrators.

Learning Objective
A learning objective ia a measurable statement that identifies the skill development or knowledge acquisition anticipated as the result of designed learning.

Lesson
A section of learning or teaching which a wider learning content is divided into.

Localization
The process of customizing software for a particular locale and/or language.

Log-in
A procedure to declare that an application is going to be used; To gain access to a computer system, usually by providing a previously agreed upon credentials, like username and password.

M

Meta Data
Information that enables a content to be stored in and retrieved from a database; typically meta data is recorded in XML files and are read by LMS and LCMS systems.

Model
A representation of a process or system that attempts to relate the most important variables in the system; a representation used as a surrogate for some real thing, for the purpose of testing, modifying, presenting, etc.

Modeling
In computer visualization, the process of creating the data structures used to represent objects and scenes, usually using special-purpose software; distinct from the process of "rendering" to create images.

Mozilla Firefox
A free and open source browser developed by Mozilla Corporation, which is among the most commonly used browsers today.

MPEG
Pronounced M-peg; Moving Picture Experts Group is the name of a family of standards used for coding audio-visual information (eg, movies, video, music) in a digital compressed format.

Multimedia
The combining of different computer-based media, usually audio, text, graphics, and animation, into a single presentation; Multimedia presentations are typically played back directly from the computer.

N

Netscape Navigator
Netscape navigator is an alternative browser for the internet and was originally founded in 1994.

O

Offline
Not connected; something not presently active or available for access in a system.

Online
Connected to the internet; computer accessories or devices directly connected to, and under the control of, the central processing unit (CPU) in real time.

Online Learning
A learning method where the system learns while it is being used. This learning method is more robust than off-line learning as the system can adapt to changes that may occur in the systems environment.

Operating System
A software program that enables the computer to run. It contains programs such as basic file and I/O manipulators. All subsystems run upon the operating system.

P

PDF
Portable Document Format

Performance
The accomplishment of work assignments or responsibilities and contributions to the organizational goals, including behavior and professional demeanor (actions, attitude, and manner of performance) as demonstrated by the employee’s approach to completing work assignments.

Performance Objective
Synonymous with learning objective it represents an operational objective defining what the student is capable of doing after the inherent conditions to the " realisation " of a desired behaviour and success criteria.

Performance-based Instruction
Instruction which develops learner performance proficiency using task-based learning objectives written with an action verb. Learners prove competency by actual performance of the objectives to the established standards.

Program
A series or set of instructions for a computer, telling it what to do or how to behave.

R

Reusable Learning Object (RLO)
A collection of RIOs (Reusable Information Object-a collection of content and assessment items assembled around a single learning objective.), overview, summary, and assessments that supports a specific learning objective.

RLO
Reusable Learning Object (a specific piece of content and code that represents an assessment, exercise, instructional content, etc.).

S

SCORM
Sharable Content Object Reference Model - a set of specifications that produces small, reusable learning objects.

Search Engine
A program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found.

Self-paced instruction
Self-paced instruction was defined as learners working at their own rate toward standard objectives set by the instructor or trainer.

Server
A computer or device on a network that manages network resources.

Storyboard
A panel or series of panels created by the developer on which a set of sketches is arranged consecutively according to the important changes of scene and action.

Synchronous Training/Learning
Training that happens in real time. The student and instructor need to be online at the same time.

T

Technology-based Training (TBT)
The delivery of content using Internet, LAN or WAN (intranet or extranet), satellite broadcast, audio- or videotape, interactive TV, or CD-ROM. Synonyms are TBT, CBT and CBL.

Terminal Objective
A learning objective, the knowledge or skill that a student is expected to have acquired at the end of a period of instruction.

Text
Delivering information using words; the written or printed material which forms the main structure of a publication.

Tutorial
A mode of instruction or a manual designed to teach learners how to use a computer system, usually in a step-by-step way. Some databases include an online tutorial.

U

Uniform Resource Locator
URL - An address for a file or location on the Internet

URL
Uniform Resource Locator

Usability
It refers to how simple it is for customers to perform the desired actions on a website or application.

User Interface
A component of a computer system referring to the way a program presents itself to a user, what it looks like on the screen, the commands it puts at the user's disposal, or the level at which the user can communicate with the program.

V

Video
The way of delivering information and the electronic representation of a sequence of images, depicting either stationary or moving scenes. It may include audio, animation, graphics, texts.

W

World Wide Web
The component of the Internet and the hypermedia document presentation system that can be accessed over the Internet using software called a Web browser.

WWW
World Wide Web